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Disparities in COVID-19 Outcomes by Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

A Systematic-Review and Meta-analysis

Key Points

Question Are race and ethnicity–based COVID-19 outcome disparities in the United States associated with socioeconomic characteristics?

Findings In this systematic review and meta-analysis of 4.3 million patients from 68 studies, African American, Hispanic, and Asian American individuals had a higher risk of COVID-19 positivity and ICU admission but lower mortality rates than White individuals. Socioeconomic disparity and clinical care quality were associated with COVID-19 mortality and incidence in racial and ethnic minority groups.

Meaning In this study, members of racial and ethnic minority groups had higher rates of COVID-19 positivity and disease severity than White populations; these findings are important for informing public health decisions, particularly for individuals living in socioeconomically deprived communities.

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